4b – Joan of Arc Trial – March 13-16, 1431

March 13, 1431

Tuesday, March 13th

The following Tuesday, the thirteenth day of March, we assembled at the same hour in the prison with the venerable and discreet brother Jean Le Maistre, and other venerable and discreet lords and masters above named:

  • Jean de La Fontaine,
  • Nicolas Midi, and
  • Gerard Feuillet, and in the presence of
  • Nicolas de Hubent and of
  • Ysambard de La Pierre, of the order of Preaching brothers.

The said brother Jean Le Maistre, seeing the letters addressed to him by the lord Inquisitor, together with the other circumstances of the matter needing consideration, joined himself with the trial, ready to proceed with us according to law and reason to a further decision of the case.

Of this we charitably informed Jeanne, exhorting her and warning her for the salvation of her soul to speak the truth in the trial on everything she was asked. And then the said deputy of the lord Inquisitor, wishing to proceed further in the case, as Promoter of the Holy Inquisition, appointed master Jean d’Estivet, canon of the churches of Bayeux and Beauvais; as keepers of the prison the noble John Grey, Squire of the Body Guard of our lord the king, and John Berwoit; as executor of his citations and convocations, master Jean Massieu, priest; the aforementioned we earlier deputed and charged to their several offices, as is shown more fully in the letters confirmed with our seals of which the tenor is given above, and in the letters of the said vicar which are described below. And the said officers took oath before the said vicar to fill their offices faithfully.

Follows the tenor of the letters from the Lord Vicar appointing the Promoter

“To all those who shall see these present letters, brother Jean Le Maistre, of the order of Preaching brothers, vicar general of the reverend father, lord and master Jean Graverent of the same order, distinguished professor of sacred theology and Inquisitor of Heretical Error in the kingdom of France, and especially delegated by apostolic authority, greeting in the author and consummator of our faith, Our Lord Jesus Christ.

Whereas the reverend father in Christ Pierre, by divine mercy lord bishop of Beauvais, ordinary judge in this matter and possessor of territory in this town and in the diocese of Rouen, had by his letters patent invited the said reverend father and lord Inquisitor and had summoned and required him in the name of the faith to appear in this city of Rouen if conveniently he could or to please to appoint in his stead us or another suitable person, to conduct, with the reverend father my lord bishop of Beauvais, the trial in matters of faith of this woman commonly known as The Maid, called by the said bishop and in his hands.

And the said reverend father and lord Inquisitor, unable by any means to appear in the town of Rouen, by letters confided to us his powers in this matter, as with other things is shown in his letters also containing the summons and requisition of the said lord bishop, and our commission; and these letters of commission dated the 14th day of March in the year 1430, are signed with the seal of the lord Inquisitor and the sign manual of the venerable master Nicolas Ogier, priest and notary public.

Therefore we, seeking and desiring humbly to fulfill with all our strength the commission of the said Inquisitor to the glory of God and the exaltation of the orthodox faith, as we are beholden to do, with all our power, having taken the counsel and advice of the lord bishop and of many other learned men, versed in sacred theology and canon and civil law, we declare that for the accomplishment of this matter it is needful to constitute and appoint on behalf of the Holy Inquisition a promoter, notaries, and an executor of our ordinances, men both kind and eminent.

Therefore according to the authority we enjoy in this matter both apostolic and that issuing from the said reverend father the lord Inquisitor, having full confidence in Our Lord and being duly informed of the integrity, zeal, adequacy and capacity of the venerable and discreet person master Jean d’Estivet, priest, canon of the churches of Bayeux and Beauvais, we have made, constituted, named, ordained and charged and we do make, constitute, name, ordain and charge the said master Jean our Promoter or Procurator general, to conduct this case and matter generally and particularly; and we convey to the said Promoter and our Procurator general, by the tenor of these present, license, faculty, and authority to sit and to appear in court and extrajudicially against the said Jeanne; to give, send, administer, produce and exhibit articles, examinations, testimonies, letters, instruments, and all other forms of proof, to accuse and denounce this Jeanne, to cause and require her to be examined and interrogated, to bring the case to an end, and to promote, procure, conduct, and exercise, all and every act known to be proper to the office of Promoter or Procurator, according to law and custom.

Therefore, to whom it may concern, we require obedience, submission, goodwill, towards the said Jean in the exercise of his office, and counsel, help, and aid. In witness of which we have ordered our seal to be affixed to these present letters. Given and signed at Rouen in the year of Our Lord 1431, Tuesday, March 13th.”

Signed: Boisguillaume. Manchon.

horizontal rule

Here follows the tenor of the letter by which the said Vicar of the Inquisitor constituted Jean Massieu, priest, executor of the convocations and summons necessary in this case

“To all those who shall see these present letters, brother Jean Le Maistre, of the order of Preaching brothers, etc., we, having full confidence in Our Lord and being duly informed of the integrity, zeal, competence, and capacity of master Jean Massieu, priest, dean of the Christendom of Rouen, appointed and constituted in this trial executor of the commands and convocations of the said lord bishop, we have appointed, retained and ordained him executor of the commands and convocations emanating from us herein; and we bestow and have bestowed on him by these present letters all authority thereto.

In testimony of which we have had our seal affixed to these present letters. Given and signed at Rouen in the year of Our Lord 1431, Tuesday the 13th day of March.”

So signed: Boisguillaume. Manchon.

horizontal rule

And when this was done as is indicated above, we the said bishop and brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the Inquisitor, thereupon proceeded together to examine and have examined the said Jeanne, in the manner earlier begun.

And first at our command Jeanne was examined upon the sign she gave her king, to which she replied: “Would you be content if I perjured myself?”

Asked whether she had sworn and promised St. Catherine not to tell this sign,

She answered: “I have sworn and promised not to tell this sign, of my own accord, because I was too much pressed to tell it ” And then she promised to herself not to speak of it further to any man. She says that the sign was that an angel assured her king by bringing him the crown and saying he should possess the whole and entire kingdom of France, by the help of god and the labors of the said Jeanne; and he was to put Jeanne to work, that is to say, to give her men-at-arms, else he would not be so soon crowned and consecrated.

Asked whether she had since yesterday spoken with St. Catherine,

She answered she had heard her since then, and notwithstanding was told many times to answer the Judges boldly what they should ask her touching the case.

Asked how the angel brought the crown, and whether he placed it on the king’s head,

She answered that it was given to an archbishop, namely the archbishop of Reims, so it seemed to her, in the presence of her king: and the said archbishop received it and gave it to her king; and Jeanne herself was present. And the said crown was put in the king’s treasure.

Asked about the place where the crown was brought,

She answered that it was in the king’s chamber in the castle of Chinon. Asked on what day and at what hour,

She answered that of the day she knew nothing, and of the hour, it was late; beyond that she could not recall the hour. And it was in the month of April or March, she thought. She said that in the present month of March or next April it will be two years ago, and it was after Easter.

Asked whether the first day she saw the sign her king also saw it,

She answered yes, and he himself received it.

Asked what the crown was made of,

She answered it was good to know it was of pure gold; and the crown was so rich and precious that she did not know how to count or appreciate its riches; and it signified that her king would gain the kingdom of France.

Asked whether there were precious stones in it,

She answered: “I have told you what I know of it.”

Asked whether she had held or kissed the crown,

She answered no.

Asked whether the angel who had brought this crown had come from on high, or from the earth,

She answered: “He came from on high,” and she understood that he came by Our Lord’s command: and he entered the room by the door.

Asked whether the angel who brought the crown came from earth,

She answered that when the angel came before the king, he did the king reverence by bowing before him and pronouncing the words of the sign that Jeanne said above. And with this the angel recalled to the king the sweet patience he had shown in the many great tribulations which had befallen him. And from the door the angel stepped and walked upon the ground and moved towards her king.

Asked what space there was between the door and the place where her king then was,

She answered that as far as she knew, there was the space of a good lance-length; and the said angel went out by the way he had come. She said that when the angel came she accompanied him and went with him by the stairs to the king’s chamber; and the angel went in first, and then she herself; and Jeanne said to her king: “Sire, here is your sign; take it.”

Asked in what place the angel appeared to her,

She answered: “I was nearly always praying that God would send the king’s sign, and I was in my lodging, in the house of a good woman, near the castle of Chinon, when the angel came; and afterwards we went together to the king; and the angel was well accompanied by other angels whom no one saw.” And she added that had it not been for love of her and to release her from the distress of them that opposed her, she thought that many who saw the angel would not have seen him.

Asked whether all who were there with the king, saw the angel,

She answered that she thought the archbishop of Reims, the Lords d’Alençon, de la Trémouille, and Charles de Bourbon saw him, and many churchmen and others saw the crown who did not see the angel.

Asked of what appearance and size the said angel was,

She answered she had not leave to tell that, and she would answer on the morrow.

Asked if all the angels who were in the company of the angel were of the same appearance,

She answered that some of them were fairly like one another, and some were not, as far as she could see; some had wings or were crowned, others were not; and in their company were St. Catherine and St. Margaret who were with the said angel and the other angels up to the very chamber of the king.

Asked how the angel left her,

She answered that he left her in a little chapel; and she was much vexed at his leaving; she wept and would gladly have gone with him, that is, her soul would have gone.

Asked whether at the angel’s departure she remained happy [afraid or in great terror],

She answered that he did not leave her in fear, or trembling; but she was vexed at his leaving.

Asked whether it was for any merit of hers that God sent her His angel,

She answered that he came for a great purpose, in hope that the king would believe the sign, and men would cease opposing her, and to help the good people of Orleans; and he came also for the merits of her king and the good Duke of Orleans. Asked why he had come to her rather than to another,

She answered that it pleased God so to do by a simple maid, to drive back the king’s enemies.

Asked whether she had been told whence the angel had taken the crown,

She answered that it was brought from God and no goldsmith on earth could have made one so rich and fair; but as for where the angel had taken it from, she referred herself to God, and knew nothing concerning it beyond that

Asked if the crown had a good odor, and whether it glittered,

She answered that she did not remember, and would think it over. Afterwards she said that it was of good odor and would always be so, as long as it was well and duly guarded and it was in the form of a crown.

Asked whether the angel had written her letters,

She an answered no.

Asked what sign the king had, and the people who were with him and her, to persuade them it was an angel who brought the crown,

She answered that the king believed it by the teaching of the clergy who were there, and by the sign of the crown.

Asked how the clergy knew that it was an angel,

She answered that they knew it by their learning and because they were clerks.

Asked about a married priest and a lost cup which she was said to have pointed out,

She answered that of all this she knew nought, nor had ever heard talk of it.

Asked whether when she went before Paris she had a revelation from her voices bidding her to go there,

She answered no, but she went at the request of nobles who wanted to make an attack, in French “une escarmouche”, or an assault-at-arms; and she intended to go beyond and cross the trenches of the town of Paris.

Asked whether she had any revelation concerning her going before the town of La Charité,

She answered no, she went at the request of the soldiers, as she answered elsewhere.

Asked whether she had any revelation concerning her going to Pont l’Evêque,

She answered that after it had been revealed her at the trenches of Melun that she would be captured, she usually deferred to the captains upon the questions of war; yet she did not tell them it had been revealed that she would be captured.

Asked whether it was right to attack the town of Paris on the day of the Festival of the Blessed Mary,

She answered that was good to observe the Festival of the Blessed Mary; and it seemed to her in her conscience good to keep the Festival of Our Lady from beginning to end.

Asked whether she had not said before the town of Paris: ‘Surrender this town, in Jesus’ name!” she answered no, but she had said “Surrender it to the king of France”.

Return to top

March 14, 1431

Wednesday, March 14th. The Vicar of the Lord Inquisitor appoints a notary

The following Wednesday, the fourteenth day of the month of March, we, brother Jean Le Maistre above named, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, having confidence in the industry and integrity of the venerable and discreet person master Nicolas Taquel, priest of the diocese of Rouen, notary public by imperial authority, and sworn notary at the archiepiscopal court of Rouen, and having full confidence in Our Saviour, we retained, elected and ordained the said Nicolas notary and secretary in this trial, as is shown in more detail in our letters patent, sealed with our seal and bearing the sign manual of our notary public, of which the tenor is transcribed below.

And the next day in the prison of the said Jeanne, where we had assembled and where we required him faithfully to exercise his office, the said master Nicolas took oath before us in the presence of master Jean de La Fontaine, of Nicolas Midi, of Gerard Feuillet, and of many others.

Follows the tenor of the letters appointing the said notary

“To all those who shall see these present letters, brother Jean Le Maistre of the order of Preaching brothers, having full confidence in God and the integrity, zeal, competence and aptitude of the discreet person master Nicolas Taquel, priest of the diocese of Rouen, we have retained, elected and ordained the said master Nicolas, sworn notary of ourselves and the lord Inquisitor, and by these present letters we retain, elect and ordain him our secretary and notary, giving him license, faculty and authority to visit the said Jeanne and all other places where she shall be, to question, or hear her questioned, to swear in any witness produced, to examine the confessions and statements of the said Jeanne and other witnesses, to set down in writing, for our benefit, the verbal opinions of the doctors and masters; to put in writing each and every one of the occurrences of the trial, and to draw up in due form the entire proceedings, performing everything pertaining to the office of notary, whenever and wherever possible. In witness whereof we have affixed our seal to these present letters. Given at Rouen March 14th in the year of Our Lord, 1431,”

Signed: Boisguillaume. G. Manchon.

horizontal rule

The same day in the prison

The same day in the presence of master Jean de La Fontaine, commissary appointed by us the aforenamed bishop and by brother Jean Le Maistre aforesaid, in the prison of the said Jeanne in the castle of Rouen; and in the presence of the assessors, venerable and discreet lords and masters Nicolas Midi and Gérard Feuillet, doctors of theology; and also of Nicolas de Hubent, apostolic notary, and of brother Ysambard de La Pierre, witnesses, Jeanne was examined.

And first why she jumped from the tower at Beaurevoir.

She answered that she had heard that the people of Compiègne all of them to the age of seven years, were to be put to fire and to the sword, and she would rather die than live after such a destruction of good people. That was one reason why she jumped: the other was that she knew she had been sold to the English, and she would have died rather than fall into the hands of her enemies the English.

Asked whether the leap was made at the counsel of her voices,

She answered that St. Catherine told her almost every day not to jump, and God would help her, and the people of Compiègne too. And Jeanne told St. Catherine that since God was going to help the people of Compiègne she wanted to be there. And St. Catherine said: “You must be resigned and not falter; you will not be delivered until you have seen the King of the English.” Jeanne answered: “Truly I do not want to see him, and I would rather die than fall into the hands of the English.”

Asked whether she said to St. Catherine and St. Margaret these words: “Will God let the good people of Compiègne die so wretchedly?”

She answered that she did not say so wretchedly, but “How can God let these good people of Compiègne die who have been and are so faithful to their Lord?”

She said that after falling from the tower, for two or three days she was without food, and so injured by the leap that she could not eat or drink; yet she was comforted by St. Catherine who told her to confess and ask God to forgive her for having jumped out, and the people of Compiègne would have succor before St. Martin’s Day in winter without fail. Then she began to get well, and to eat, and soon afterwards recovered.

Asked whether when she leaped she expected to kill herself,

She answered no, for as she leaped she commended herself to God. And she hoped that by the leap she would escape and not be delivered to the English.

Asked whether when she regained her speech she denied God and His Saints, since this is stated in the evidence,

She answered that she did not remember that she had ever denied God and His saints, or blasphemed, there or elsewhere.

Asked whether she wished to abide by the evidence,

She answered: “I leave it to God and none other, and a good confession.”

Asked if her voices wanted delay in which to answer,

She said that St. Catherine sometimes answered her but that she, Jeanne, failed to understand on account of the noise of the prison and the tumult made by her guards. And when she makes a request to St. Catherine, then she and St. Margaret take the request to God and then by God’s order they give answer to Jeanne.

Asked whether when the saints come to her there comes a light with them, and whether she did not see the light when she heard the voice in the castle, and did not know whether it was in her room:

She answered that there is not a day when they do not come to the castle, nor do they come without a light. And as to the voice in question she does not remember whether she saw a light, or St. Catherine either. She says that she asked three things of her voices: one was her deliverance; the second was that God should aid the French and keep the towns which were under their control; and the third was the salvation of her soul. She asks that if she is taken to Paris she may have a copy of the questions and of her replies, so that she may give them to the people at Paris and say to them “Thus was I questioned at Rouen, and here are my replies,” and may not be worried again over so many questions.

And then since she had said that we the aforenamed bishop were exposing ourselves to great peril, in French “en grant dangier”, by bringing her to trial, she was asked what that meant, and to what peril or danger we exposed ourselves, we and the others.

She answered that she had said to us the aforesaid bishop, “You say that you are my judge; I do not know if you are; but take good heed not to judge me ill, because you would put yourself in great peril. And I warn you so that if God punish you for it I shall have done my duty in telling you.”

Asked what that danger or peril was,

She answered that St. Catherine told her she would have aid, and she does not know whether this will be her deliverance from prison, or if, whilst she is being tried, some tumult might come through which she can be delivered. And she thinks it will be one or the other. And beyond this the voices told her she will be delivered by a great victory; and then they said: “Take everything peacefully: have no care for thy martyrdom; in the end thou shalt come to the Kingdom of Paradise.” And this her voices told her simply and absolutely, that is, without faltering. And her martyrdom she called the pain and adversity which she suffers in prison; and she knows not whether she shall yet suffer greater adversity, but therein she commits herself to God.

Asked whether, since her voices had told her that in the end she should go to Paradise, she has felt assured of her salvation, and of not being damned in hell,

She answered that she firmly believed what the voices told her, namely that she will be saved, as firmly as if she were already there.

Asked whether after this revelation she believed that she could not commit mortal sin,

She answered: “I do not know; but in everything I commit myself to God.” And when she was told that this was an answer of great weight,

She answered that she held it for a great treasure.

The same Wednesday afternoon in the prison

The same Wednesday, in the afternoon, there appeared in the said place the venerable and discreet persons the lords and masters above named, Jean de La Fontaine, appointed by ourself and by Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor, the assessors Nicolas Midi and Gérard Feuillet, doctors in theology; and there were present also brother Ysambard de La Pierre and Jean Manchon.

And the said Jeanne first answered, concerning the immediately preceding article relative to the certainty she felt of her salvation, upon which she had been examined in the morning, that she intended the reply in this way: provided she kept her oath and promise to Our Lord, that is, to keep safe her virginity, of body and of soul.

Asked whether she need confess, since she believed by the revelation of her voices that she will be saved,

She answers that she does not know of having committed mortal sin, but if she were in mortal sin, she thinks St. Catherine and St. Margaret would at once abandon her. And she believes, in answer to the preceding article, that one cannot cleanse one’s conscience too much.

Asked whether since she has been in this prison she has not denied or blasphemed God,

She answered no; but sometimes when she said in French, ‘Bon gré Dieu or ‘saint Jehan,’ or ‘Nostre Dame,’ those who reported the words may have misunderstood.

Asked whether it was not mortal sin to take a man at ransom and to put him to death, a prisoner,

She answered that she had not done that.

And since mention was made to her of a certain Franquet d’Arras, who was put to death at Lagny,

She answered that she was consenting to his death if he had deserved it, since he had confessed himself a murderer, a thief, and a traitor. She said his trial lasted a fortnight; and he had for judges the Bailly de Senlis and a jury of the people of Lagny. And she said she had asked to have Franquet exchanged for a man from Paris, the landlord of the Bear Inn; and when she heard of the death of the landlord and the Bailly had told her she would be doing great wrong to justice by delivering this Franquet, she said to the Bailly: “As the man I wanted is dead, do with this fellow as justice demands.”

Asked if she sent money, or had money sent, to him who had taken the said Franquet,

She answered that she is not Master of the Mint or Treasurer of France that she should pay out money.

And, when she was reminded that she had attacked Paris on a Feast Day; that she had had the horse of the lord Bishop of Senlis; that she had thrown herself from the tower at Beaurevoir; that she wore a man’s dress; that she was consenting to the death of Franquet d’Arras; she was asked whether she did not believe she had committed mortal sin;

She answered firstly, concerning the attack on Paris, “I do not think I am in mortal sin,” and if she were, it is for God, and the priest in confession, to know it.

And secondly, concerning the horse, she answered that she firmly believes she did not therein commit mortal sin against God; for the horse was valued at 200 gold saluts, of which he received the assignment; nevertheless the horse was sent back to the Sire de la Trémouille to restore it to the Bishop of Senlis; nor was the said horse of any use to her for riding. Moreover it was not she who took it from the bishop. She added that for another thing she did not wish to keep it, since she heard that the bishop was displeased that his horse had been taken, and besides that, the horse was useless for men-at-arms. Finally and in conclusion Jeanne knew not whether the bishop was paid the assignation made to him, nor whether his horse was returned to him; she thought not.

And thirdly, concerning her fall from the tower at Beaurevoir, she answered: “I did it not out of despair, but in hope of saving my body and of going to the aid of many good people in need.” And after the leap she confessed herself and asked pardon of God. And this she received, and she believes it was not good, but rather wrong, to make that leap. She knew had been forgiven from a revelation of St. Catherine’s at her confession, at whose advice she confessed herself.

Asked whether she received any great penance,

She answered that a large part of her penance was the hurt she did herself in falling.

Asked whether she thought this wrong she did herself to mortal sin,

She answered that she knows nothing about the and refers herself to God.

And fourthly, concerning’ the man’s dress she wears,

She answered: “Since I do it by God’s command and in His service I do not think I do wrong; and so soon as it shall please God to command I will put it off.”

Return to top

March 15, 1431

Thursday, March 15th in prison

The morning of the Thursday next following, the fifteenth day of March, in the prison of the said Jeanne, master Jean de La Fontaine, our appointed commissary, Ourself, and brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the Inquisitor, presiding; with the venerable Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet, doctor of sacred theology, and in presence of Nicolas de Hubent, apostolic notary, and brother Ysambard de La Pierre.

The said Jeanne was charitably exhorted, admonished, and required to be willing to refer to the decision of Our Holy Mother the Church, as she ought, in the event of her having done anything contrary to our faith. She answered that her replies should be seen and examined by the clergy, and then she should be told if there were anything contrary to the Christian faith: she will be able to tell certainly what it is, and then she will tell what she learned from her counsel. Moreover if there were any evil against Christian faith advanced by Our Lord, she would not wish to sustain it, and would be grieved to be in opposition.

Then the distinction between the Church Triumphant and the Church Militant was declared to her, what the one was, and what the other, and she was required therefrom to submit to the decision of the Church whatever she had said or done whether good or evil. She replied: “I will not give you any further answer for the present.”

Jeanne was required, upon the oath she had sworn, to tell how she expected to escape from the castle of Beaulieu between two pieces of wood: she answered she was never a prisoner in any place but she would gladly escape; and being in the castle she would have shut up her keepers in the tower, had not the porter seen and encountered her. She saw that it seemed that it did not please God to have her escape on that occasion, and she must see the English king, as her voices had told her, and as it is written above.

Asked if she had leave from God or from her voices to escape from prisons whenever it pleased her,

She answered: “I have often asked for it, but so far I have not obtained it.”

Asked whether she would go now, if she saw her opportunity,

She answered that if she saw the door open she would go; and it would be God’s permission. And she firmly believes that if she saw the door open, and her keepers and the other English unable to resist, she would take it as her permission, and that God had sent her aid; but without leave she would not go, unless she made a forcible attempt, in French “une enterprise,” to discover whether God was pleased, giving as reason this proverb in the French tongue: “Aide toy, Dieu te aidera.” And this she said so that if she escaped none could say she did so without leave.

Asked, since she had wished to hear Mass, whether it did not seem to her more fitting to be in female costume, and which she would prefer, to wear a woman’s dress and be at the Mass, or to keep to a man’s dress and not hear Mass,

She answered: “Promise me that I may hear Mass if I wear a woman’s dress, and I will answer you.”

Then the examiner said to her: “I promise that you may hear Mass, if you are in a woman’s dress.” She answered: “And what do you answer, if I have sworn and promised to our king not to put off this dress? Yet I will tell you: have made for me a long dress reaching down to the ground, without a train, and give it to me to go to Mass; and then, on my return, I will put on once again the dress I have.” Asked once and for all, whether she would wear a woman’s dress and go to hear Mass,

She answered: “I will have counsel on it, and then I will answer you.” Moreover, she urged us that for the honor of God and of Our Lady she be permitted to hear Mass in this good town.

Whereupon she was told by the examiner that she should take a woman’s dress, simply and absolutely.

She replied: “Give me a dress such as the daughters of your burgesses wear, a long houppelande (and also a woman’s hood) and I will wear it to go and hear Mass.” She added that as urgently as she could she besought us to permit her to hear Mass in the dress she wore, without any change.

Asked if, on that which she had said and done, she will submit and commit herself to the decision of the Church,

She answered: “Everything I have said or done is in the hand of God, and I commit myself to Him. And I certify to you that I would do or say nothing against the Christian faith; and, if I had said or done anything, or if anything were found on me which the clergy should declare to be against the Christian faith established by Our Lord, I would not uphold it, but would cast it out.”

Asked if she would submit herself therein to the ordinance of the Church,

She answered: “I will not now answer you more; but on Saturday next send me the priest, if you do not wish to come, and I will answer him this with God’s aid, and it shall be set down in writing.”

Asked whether when her voices came to her she bowed down to them altogether, as to a saint, she answers yes; and if sometimes she had failed to do so, she had afterwards asked forgiveness. Nor could she do them the reverence proper to them, for she firmly believes them to be St. Catherine and St. Margaret. And she said likewise concerning St. Michael.

Asked whether, since candles were commonly offered to the saints of Paradise, she has not burnt candles or other things, in church or elsewhere, or had Masses said, to the saints who visit her,

She answered no, except at Mass, in the priest’s hand, and in honor of St. Catherine. She believes it to be one of them who appear to her; nor has she lit as many candles to St. Catherine and St. Margaret as she gladly would, firmly believing it is they who come to her.

Asked whether when she puts the candles before the image of St. Catherine she does it in honor of her who appears to her,

She answered: “I do it in honor of God, of Our Lady, of St. Catherine who is in heaven, and I make no difference between St. Catherine who is in heaven and her who appears to me.”

Asked if she always did or accomplished what her voices bade her,

She answered that with all her might she accomplished the behest which Our Lord spoke through her voices, as far as she could understand. And they bade her nothing without the good pleasure of Our Lord.

Asked if in battle she had done anything without the permission of her voices,

She answered: “You have my answer to this. Read your book carefully, and you will find it.” Yet she said that at the request of men-at-arms she made an attack before Paris and also before La Charité at her king’s request. This was neither against nor according to the command of her voices . Asked if ever she did anything contrary to their command and will,

She answered that she did what she could and knew, to the best of her power. And as for her leap from the tower at Beaurevoir, she did it against their bidding, she could not help herself; and when her voices saw her need, and that she could in no way hold herself back, they lent aid to her life and prevented her from being killed. Moreover, whatever she did in her great ventures, they succored her, and this is a sign that they are good spirits.

Asked if she had any other sign that they were good spirits,

She answered: “St. Michael certified it before they came to me.”

Asked how she knew it was St. Michael,

She answered: “By the angels’ speech and tongue.” She firmly believes that they were angels.

Asked how she recognized that they were angels,

She answered she believed it very soon and had the desire to believe it. And she said further that St. Michael, when he came to her, told her that St. Catherine and St. Margaret would come to her, that she should follow their counsel, and that they were instructed to lead her and advise her what she had to do; and that she should believe what they said, for it was at Our Lord’s Command.

Asked how she would tell if he were a good or bad spirit if the Enemy put himself in the form and guise of an angel,

She answered that she would certainly know whether it was St. Michael or a counterfeit in his likeness.

At first she said she had grave doubts whether it was St. Michael; and the first time she was afraid; and she saw him many times before she knew it was St. Michael.

Asked how she knew then rather than on the first occasion that it was St. Michael who had appeared to her,

She answered that the first time she was a young girl and was afraid; since then St. Michael taught her and showed her so many things that she firmly believed it was he.

Asked what doctrine he taught her,

She answered that in all things he told her to be a good child and God would help her; and, among other things, he told her she should go to the aid of the King of France. A great part of what the angel taught her is in this book, and the angel told her of the pity that was in the Kingdom of France.

Asked about the height and stature of this angel, she said she will reply on Saturday with the other matter, namely what shall please God.

Asked if she does not believe it to be a great sin to anger St. Catherine and St. Margaret who appear to her, and to do contrary to their bidding, she answers yes, but she knows how to atone for it; what angered them most of all [in her opinion] was the leap at Beaurevoir; wherein she asked their forgiveness, and for other offenses she had committed against them.

Asked if St. Catherine and St. Margaret would not take bodily vengeance for this offense,

She answered that she does not know, and has not asked them.

Asked why she formerly said, that for speaking truth one is sometimes hanged, and if she knew of any crime or fault in her through which she might or ought to die, were she to confess,

She answered no.

Return to top